Microbiota and Body Composition During the Period of Complementary Feeding

In this study,  scientists aimed at investigating the relationships between food category consumption, fecal microbial profile, and body composition throughout the supplemental feeding phase. In a cohort of 50 babies aged 6 to 24 months, the diet was examined using a quantitative food frequency questionnaire, fecal microbiota profile was analyzed using 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and body composition was measured using bioelectrical impedance analysis and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. 

Age was the biggest predictor of microbiota composition throughout this key time of microbiota formation, with network analysis suggesting a cluster of taxa positively related with age. A distinct cluster included fat mass index-associated taxa, with Bifidobacterium having the highest association (rho = 0.55, P = 0.001, false discovery rate [FDR] = 0.018). Dairy consumption was shown to be both adversely and favorably associated with Bacteroides (rho = −0.49, P < 0.001, FDR = 0.024) and lean mass index  (rho = 0.44, P = 0.007, FDR = 0.024). Antibiotic usage in the first month of birth had the greatest impact on body composition, with a 1.17 (P = 0.001)  rise in mean BMI z score and a 3.5% P = 0.001) increase in body fat.
The findings indicated that antibiotics used in the first month of life had the greatest impact on body composition in this cohort of babies aged 6 to 24 months, but dairy consumption interacted with both microbiota and body composition in early life.


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