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Andrew Fire, Craig Mello, and their colleagues were among the first to examine the effects of doublestranded RNA on gene expression (A. Fire et al. 1998 Nature $391: 806-811$ ). In one experiment, they used a transgenic strain of $C$ elegans into which a gene $(g f p)$ for a green fluorescent pigment had been introduced. They injected some worms with double-stranded RNA complementary to coding sequences of the $g f p$ gene and injected other worms with double-stranded RNA complementary to the coding region of a different gene $(u n c 22 A)$ that encodes a muscle protein. The photographs on the next page show larvae and adult progeny of the injected worms. Green fluorescent pigment appears as bright spots in the photographs.
a. Explain these results.
b. Fire and Mello conducted another experiment in which they injected double-stranded RNA complementary to the introns and promoter sequences of the $g f p$ gene. What results would you expect with this experiment? Explain your answer.
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