CRISPR-Cas technology a new era in genomic engineering


Review


doi: 10.1016/j.btre.2022.e00731.


eCollection 2022 Jun.

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Review

Ali Parsaeimehr et al.


Biotechnol Rep (Amst).


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Abstract

The CRISPR-Cas systems have offered a flexible, easy-to-use platform to precisely modify and control the genomes of organisms in various fields, ranging from agricultural biotechnology to therapeutics. This system is extensively used in the study of infectious, progressive, and life-threatening genetic diseases for the improvement of quality and quantity of major crops and in the development of sustainable methods for the generation of biofuels. As CRISPR-Cas technology continues to evolve, it is becoming more controllable and precise with the addition of molecular regulators, which will provide benefits for everyone and save many lives. Studies on the constant growth of CRISPR technology are important due to its rapid development. In this paper, we present the current applications and progress of CRISPR-Cas genome editing systems in several fields of research, we further highlight the applications of anti-CRISPR molecules to regulate CRISPR-Cas gene editing systems, and we discuss ethical considerations in CRISPR-Cas applications.


Keywords:

Agriculture biotechnology; Biofuels; CRISPR-Cas; Food industry; Gene editing; Therapeutics.

Conflict of interest statement

The authors have no conflicts of interest to declare that are relevant to the content of this article.

Figures


Fig. 1



Fig. 1

Scheme on applications of CRISPR/Cas-based technology to manage bacteria in food science. Note: Strain typing: studies the microbial evolution, analysis of population-level genotypes in diverse environmental sample types, and strain diversity and relatedness. Phage resistance: Phage-related infections of starter cultures constitute one of the biggest reasons for fermentation failure. Antimicrobial: Biotechnologists can apply CRISPR-Cas technology to eradicate undesirable microbes from production systems by targeting particular populations of bacteria. Phage resistance: The CRISPR-Cas system can be used to target genomic factors that promote phage replication.


Fig. 2



Fig. 2

The applications of CRISPR-Cas systems in therapeutics.Note: Gene-editing features of CRISPR-Cas have been used in a variety of therapeutic applications, including cancer diagnosis and therapy, detection of infectious/non-infectious diseases, and genetic disorders. Currently, in the area of therapeutics, CRISPR-Cas is used for experiments, such as testing mutant models, reorganizing the genome, coding-noncoding regions, gene-gene interaction, genetic screens and identifying anticancer immune targets [6, 7, 79].

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Further reading

    1. Koonin E.V., Makarova K.S., Zhang F. Diversity, classification and evolution of CRISPR-Cas systems. Curr. Opin. Microbiol. 2017;37:67–78. doi: 10.1016/j.mib.2017.05.008.



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    1. Liu Q., Zhang H., Huang X. Anti-CRISPR proteins targeting the CRISPR-Cas system enrich the toolkit for genetic engineering. FEBS J. 2020;287:626–644. doi: 10.1111/febs.15139.



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    1. Wang P., Yi Y., Lü X. CRISPR/Cas9-based genome editing platform for Companilactobacillus crustorum to reveal the molecular mechanism of its probiotic properties. J. Agric. Food Chem. 2021;69:15279–15289. doi: 10.1021/acs.jafc.1c05389.



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